In Nehemiah 10, the people of Israel make a covenant with God to obey His commands and to live according to His laws. This covenant is made in response to the people's recognition of their sins and their need for God's mercy and grace. The people pledge to keep the Sabbath, to give a tenth of their income to the temple, and to keep the laws of God. They also agree to separate themselves from the surrounding nations and to not intermarry with them.
The covenant is sealed with a solemn oath, and the people are reminded of the consequences of breaking the covenant. They are warned that if they break the covenant, God will punish them and bring disaster upon them.
This chapter is a reminder of the importance of obedience to God's commands. It is a reminder that God is a God of justice and mercy, and that He will reward those who obey Him and punish those who disobey Him. It is also a reminder that we must be willing to make a commitment to God and to keep it. We must be willing to separate ourselves from the world and to live according to God's laws.